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C: CONSTITUTION

CONSTITUTION - The 1994 Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Republic of Belarus with amendments and addenda approved at the national referenda held 24 November 1996 and 17 October 2004 legalized a new stage in the development of our society and state.
The Constitution stipulates the principle of supremacy of the law. The state, all its bodies and officials act within the framework of the Constitution and legislative acts approved in accordance thereto. In addition, the priority of generally recognized principles of the international law is recognized and the legislation is harmonized therewith. The Republic of Belarus sets as its goal to turn its territory into a nuclear-free zone and the state — into a neutral one.
The symbols of the Republic of Belarus as a sovereign state are its National Flag, National Emblem and National Anthem. The capital of the republic is the city of Minsk.
The state languages of the Republic of Belarus are Belarusian and Russian.
It recognizes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN Charter, International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, is a party to agreements within the framework of the OCSE and to many international conventions. The principles defining the status of an individual provided for in most important international and legal documents have been embodied in the Constitution of Belarus.
Guaranteeing rights and freedoms of citizens of the Republic of Belarus is stipulated as the supreme goal of the state in the Constitution (Fundamental Law). The state guarantees numerous rights and freedoms to the citizens of Belarus embodied in the Constitution and laws and provided for by the international commitments of the state (individual, legal and socio-economic).
Monopolization of mass media by the state, non-governmental associations or individuals, as well as censorship are not allowed.
The Constitution guarantees to the citizens of the Republic of Belarus the right to health protection, including free treatment in the state-owned health care institutions. Free general secondary and vocational and technical education is also guaranteed. The secondary specialized and higher education is accessible for all in accordance with capabilities of each individual.
An important social guarantee is the right of citizens of the Republic of Belarus to social security in old age, in case of a disease, invalidity, disability, loss of a breadwinner and in other cases provided for by the law. The state takes special care of war and labor veterans, as well as of persons who lost health protecting the state and public interests.
The citizens of the Republic of Belarus enjoy the right of equal access to any office in the state bodies in accordance with their abilities and professional background.
Such institutes as referenda and free elections are embodied and the only source of the state power is people. The President of the Republic of Belarus, deputies of the House of Representatives of the National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus, as well as deputies of Local Councils of the Republic of Belarus are elected based on the universal, free, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Political parties, working collectives and citizens are entitled to nominate candidates for the deputies in accordance with the law.
Holding national and local referenda is one of the ways of a direct participation of citizens in managing the society and state.
The provision of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights regarding the presumption of innocence is embodied.
The property may be state-owned and private. The state grants equal rights to all to effect economic and other activity, except that prohibited by the law, and guarantees equal protection and equal conditions for development of all categories of ownership.


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